Álvarez Nogal, Carlos. 1997. Los Banqueros de Felipe IV y los Metales Preciosos Americanos (1621 - 1665).  Esudios de Historia Económica, num. 36 - 1997. (publication city not declared, Madrid?): Banco de España. [195 pp. No coins.  Has information on Italian, Portuguese and German bankers who financed Philip IV.  Interesting are the tables of  treasure fleet arrivals with dates and payouts to the bankers.  For example, the Armada de la Carrera under command of general Marqués de Cadereita arrived in June 1623 - this was the remnants of the ill fated 1622 fleet of Atocha fame.]

Adams, E.H. 1974. The Julius Guttag Collection of Latin American Coins. Lawrence, MA. Quarterman Publications reprint. [Original printing 1929 Catalogue of the Collection of Julius Guttag, New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Comprising the Coinage of Mexico, Central America, South America and the West Indies.] [two lots of Colombia cobs, Lot 1186 with image of finest known Cartagena 1655 8 Reales and Lot 1187 an 8 Reales listed as 1667 but actually 1657].

Armstrong, Douglas R. 1993. Tumbaga Silver for Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire.  Private printing. [ Research paper on silver bars, recovered in Bahamas in the year 1992 from a 16th century shipwreck.  Dr. Armstrong convincingly argues for 1526 Mexico as the date and origination of the bars, this was during the Spanish conquest by Cortez.  Tumbaga is the word for low fineness silver and gold, these bars were likely made from melted silver items looted from native inhabitants of the new world.  Very interesting book]

Asociación Numismatica Española.  Various dates. Auction Catalogs: Barcelona.

13-14-15 de Junio de 1988: (1) Lote 994 (8R 165x) foto [catalog text in error "1665", cannot be 1665 because of the style of crowns atop the pillars, most likely the coin is 1652 or 3]

Baldwin's Auctions. 1995. "Silver Coins of South America". In Auction Number 6. London: printed by Pardy & Son (Printers) Ltd., Ringwood, Hampshire. [Sale date was 11-October-1995, included 16 lots of Nuevo Reino silver cobs.]

Barriga Villalba, A.M. 1969. Historia de la Casa de Moneda. Bogotá: Banco de la Republica (de Colombia) 3 tomos.

Becerra León, Jorge. 1997. "¿ Es la Primera Moneda ?" Boletín Numismatica 64. Santa Fé de Bogotá: Numismaticos Colombianos. [Articluo en el cual el autor disputa la atribución a Colombia de un escudo de 1619.  pp 34-5]

Bischoff, William, editor 1989.  The Coinage of El Perú, New York: American Numismatic Society.  [ 250pp. Collection of essays presented at "The Coinage of the Americas Conference", October 29-30, 1988. The entire book is on Latin American coinage,  special interest is the Introduction, the Overview by Freeman Craig, Jr. and particularly Joseph Lasser's essay "The Silver Cobs of Colombia, 1622-1748".]

Blanton, Herman. 2001. "Macuquinas Colombianas En Los Principales Museos Ingleses-Fitzwilliam," Numis-Notoas No. 96. Medellín, Colombia: Circulo Numismático Antioqueño. pp. 4-6 [ Artículo acerca macuquinas en el museo Fitzwilliam en Cambrige, fotos de cuatro monedas.  Article on cobs in the Fitzwilliam museum at Cambridge, photos of four coins.] Translation by Dr. Restrepo.

Bowers and Ruddy Galleries. 1977.  The Harold A. Blauvelt, Iberoamerican and 1715 Spanish Teasure Fleet Collections. Los Angeles: Private Printing.  [February 17-19, 1977 Auction with 1715 Plate Fleet material. Contains Colombian gold cobs, but no Colombian silver cobs.]

Burzio, Humberto F. 1958. Diccionario de la Moneda Hispanoamericana, 3 tomos. Santiago de Chile: Fondo Histórico y Bibliográfico José Toribio Medina. [two volumes text and one of plates.]

Calbetó de Grau, Gabriel. 1970. Compendio de las Piezas de Ocho Reales. 2 volumes/tomos. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Ediciones Juan Ponce de Leon. [two volumes 733 pages].

Calicó, F. Xavier. 1953. Aportación a la Historia Monetaria de Santa Fe de Bogotá (Colombia).  Barcelona: Xavier and Ferrán Calicó.  [81pp.  Landmark book that for the first time identified many Colombian gold and silver cobs previously attributed to Seville.]

Calicó, Ferrán, Xavier Calicó and Joaquín Trigo.  1998. Numismatica Española 1474 a 1998 Barcelona: Xavier and Ferrán Calicó. [ 9th edition, 766 pp, distributed by Carlos Fuster-Bailèn.]

Cancio, Leopoldo. 1986. "El Tesoro de El Mesuno Corregido y Aumentado" Boletin Numismatico 41 y 42. Santa Fé de Bogotá: Numismaticos Colombianos.

Cayón, Adolfo, Clemente Cayón and Juan Cayón. 1998. Las Monedas Españolas, Del tremis al euro, Del 411 a nuestros días. Madrid: Private printing. [1270 pp., distributed by Jano S.L.:, Alcalá, 35:, 28014 Madrid-Spain.]

Cayón Auctions.  2001.  Siegfried von Schuckmann Collection of Latin American colonial 8 reales Coleccíon de 8 reales coloniales 13 de diciembre de 2001. Madrid: Private printing.  [Outstanding collection of 205 lots of Spanish colonial coins, new world and Philippines.  Cobs, royals and milled coins.  In Colombia arena there are 6 cobs including the finest known 1622 8R].

Christensen, Henry, Inc. 1979. Auction Sale of the Thomas Faistauer Type Collection of Spanish Colonial Coins at the VIII Annual New York International Numismatic Convention. Madison, NJ. Private printing. [Dec. 8-9, 1979 Auction catalog.  Has two nice silver cobs, lots 1077 and 1078.]

Christensen, Henry, Inc. 1982. Numismatic Commentary and Auction *** Treasures of the Conception. Madison, NJ. Private printing. [May 17, 1982 Auction catalog.  Has twenty one lots of Colombian silver cobs from the wreck of the Concepción.]

Christie's New York. 1988. Gold and Silver of the Atocha and Santa Margarita. New York: Private printing. [June 14 - 15, 1988 Auction. The definitive auction of Atocha artifacts including astrolabes, silver table articles, gold jewelry, emeralds, silver bars, gold bars and of course coins.  Five lots of Colombian silver cobs, four with photo.]

Christie's New York. 1989. Coins from the Wreck of H.M.S. Feversham.  New York: Private printing. [February 7, 1989 Auction.  Feversham wrecked in 1711.  Has two lots of Nuevo Reino, both coins are illustrated.]

Craig, Alan K. and David C. Simmons.   1997.   An Atocha Coin of Historic Interest.  Treasure Quest Magazine.  May-June, 1997 pp. 53-57.  [Authors illustrate a 1619 gold escudo which they identify as the first gold coin of the Americas, struck in Cartagena Colombia.]

Craig, Alan K. 2000. Spanish Colonial Silver Coins in the Florida Collection. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. [217 pp.  At publication there were 22,009 Spanish Colonial silver coins in the State of Florida collection.  Most are Mexico and Potosi. [However, eight are from Colombia: three from Cartagena ca. 1655 and five from Nuevo Reino (Santa Fe de Bogotá).  Five of the Colombian coins are photographed, Cartagena 8R, 4R and 2R; and two Nuevo Reino 8R.  All five of these illustrated coins are of the pillars and waves design cobs.] 

Craig, Alan K, 2000. Spanish Colonial Gold Coins in the Florida Collection. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. [ 94 pp.  Covers gold coins.]

Craig, Alan K and Ernest J. Richards, Jr. 2003. Spanish Treasure Bars From New World Shipwrecks. West Palm Beach, Florida: En Rada Publications (Ernest Richards). [ x, 213 pp. much information]. Read book review here.

Craig, Freeman & Co. Various dates. Auction Catalogs: Mill Valley, California.

[Auction catalogs listed by sale date. All are good references for Latin America.]

14-Nov-1984: (1) Lot 563

25-Sept-1985: (2) Lots 158, 565: (Lot 16 gold.)

7-May-1986: (2) Lots 558,559

13-May-1987: (6) Lots 185,186,187,500,501,502

2-Dec-1987: (14) Lots 291,292,293,312-322

Elmen, James F., World-Wide Coins of California, Various dates. Auction Catalogs: Santa Rosa, California.

18-May-1989: (2) lot 635 (shield type real, assayer R), lot 636 (medio real) photos.

Elizondo, Carlos A. Jr., 1971. Eight Reales and Pesos of the New World, second edition. Ideal Litho service.  Distributed by Almanzar's Coins of the World, San Antonio, TX. [Suffix has photos of three 8 reales: 1662 PoRS, 1721 ARC and 1722(?) SAN]

Fundación ICO. 1999.  El oro y la plata de las Indias en la época de los Austrias.  Madrid.  [798 pp.  Catalog prepared in conjunction with national exhibit regarding the economic and social impact on Spain, Europe and the World as a result of the importation of the wealth of of the Indies in the 16th & 17th centuries.  Profusely illustrated with portraits, photos, treasure, art and coins.]

Friede, Juan. 1963. Documentos Sobre la Fundación de la Casa de Moneda en Santa Fé de Bogotá (1614-1635) Conservados en el Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla, Transcritos y Anotados.  Bogotá: Publicaciónes del Banco de la Republica.

Granada, Gustavo A. 2001.  "Recuento De Naufragios Con Recuperación De Moneda Colonial De Cecas Nuevo Reino" Numis-Notoas No. 96. Medellín, Colombia: Circulo Numismático Antioqueño. pp. 7-10 [  Article on shipwrecks that yielded Nuevo Reino cobs.]

Harris, Neil. 1986. "Coins of the Nuestra Señora de Atocha," The Numismatist. Colorado Springs, Colorado: American Numismatic Organization. [October edition, article on pp2017 to 2040.  Photos of five Colombian cobs, all 1622.]

Heiss, Aloiss. 1865 - 1869 Descripción general de las monedas hispano-cristianas desde la invasión de los árabes. Madrid: Impreso de M. Galiano. 3 tomos.

Herrera, Adolfo. 1914. El Duro. Madrid: J. Lacoste. 2 tomos. reimpreso 1992 Juan R. Cayón. Madrid: Imp. Fareso S.A. tomos I y II conjuntos. [the classic standard reference for 8 reales and like sized coins of Spain and her dominions, includes 150 full page plates of photos.]

Lasser, Joseph R.  1992. "The Cobs of Cartagena, 1622-1655," American Journal of Numismatics Second Series 3-4 (1991-2). American Numismatic Society Series 3-4, 1992.  pp. 117-122, plates 13-14.

Lasser, Joseph R. and Dr. Jorge Emilio Restrepo.  2000.  The Cob Coinage of Colombia. Second edition, English language. New York: Pertinax Press. [Expansion of first edition with explanatory articles in the front of the book, excellent.]

Lázaro , Jose Luis. 1996.  Los Redondos de Lima, Méjico y Potosí y otras acuñaciones especiales.  Madrid: Dayton S.A. [Does not cover Colombia.  Spanish American 8 reales that were specially made to be round and fully struck,  Book has image and description of each known type.  460pp, hardbound.  ] In North American these are referred to as "Royals", but there is no documentation to support that these coins are any more "royal" than the remaining coinage issued in the name of the Spanish kings.

Lorenzo Arrocha, Jesús Manuel.  1999.  Galeón, Naufragios y Tesoros. Santa Cruz de la Palma, Canary Islands: Caja General de Ahorros de Canarias.  Número 229, Historia 31.  Gráficas Sabater, s.a. printer. [159 pp. Data on many but not all shipwrecks of the treasure fleet era, including the 1588 Armada.]

Lozano Villegas, Alberto, 1986. "La Moneda en el Nuevo Reino de Granada Acuñaciones Macuquinas de Plata" Boletin No. 100. Buenos Aires: Private printing. [Instituto de Numismatica e Historia de San Nicolas de los Arroyos.  Boletin No. 100, June 1986.  Article on pp 265 to 271.  Includes four previously unpublished coins.]

Lyon, Eugene. 1976. "The Trouble with Treasure," National Geographic. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society. [ June edition. pp 786 - 809. Interesting reading with many photos, including the obverse of a Nuevo Reino 8 reales recovered from the wreck.  The caption says minted 1621 but the coin is likely 1622 based on design and other coins recovered from the wreck.]

Lyon, Eugene. 1982. "Treasure From the Ghost Galleon," National Geographic. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society. [February edition.  pp 228 - 243.  Story of the shipwrecked Santa Margarita, which sank in 1622 along with her sister ship the Atocha.  Some of the earliest made Colombian coins were recovered form this wreck. No photos of Colombian coins.]

Nesmith, Robert I. 1955.  The Coinage of the First Mint of the Americas at Mexico City 1536-1572. New York: The American Numismatic Society, Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 131. [vii, 139 pp. plus XIII plates. Does not cover Colombia.  Excellent book on the Mexico city mint with information on mint operations and coining methods.  Nesmith provides in depth coverage of the "Carlos & Joanna" coins, which are generally round and of superior quality than the cob type coins produced later.]

Nesmith, R.I. 1958. "A Hoard of the First Silver Coins of Nuevo Reino de Granada (Colombia)," The Centennial Publication of The American Numismatic Society. New York: American Numismatic Society. [The book is 712 pp, edited by Harald Ingholt.  Nesmith article on pp. 513-530.  This article presents photos and coin details of the largest hoard of silver Colombian cobs ever discovered.  A must resource for the student of these coins.]

Numismáticos Colombianos. 2000. Remate 02 Bogotá: Private printing. [Catalog of Auction two, sponsored by Fundación Numismáticos Colombianos.  This sale included coins from the estate of the late numismatic pioneer Don Alberto Lozano Villegas.  258 lots including Colombian cobs; 2 gold, 8 silver.]

Olds, Dorris L. 1976. Texas Legacy from the Gulf, A Report on Sixteenth Century Shipwreck Materials Recovered from the Texas Tidelands. Austin, TX.: Texas Memorial Museum. [Joint Publication: Miscellaneous Papers No. 5 of Texas Memorial Museum, Publication No.2 of Texas Antiquities Committee].  x pp., 204 pp. [Does not cover Colombia.  Academic work detailing finds of the "Padre Island" shipwrecks. Among the artifacts covered are: a 131.6 gram gold ingot with stamps, silver disks with stamps, including a portrait stamp of Charles V, Mexico City coins of Charles & Joanna plus lots of ship items and weapons.]

Pellicer I Bru, Josep. 1997. Glosario de Maestros de Ceca y Ensayadores (Siglos XIII-XX). Segunda edición. Madrid.  Museo Casa de a Moneda. Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre, printer. [425 pp. The best book related to assayers and mintmasters of Spanish mints. Authoritative.]

Pérez Sindreu, Francisco de Paula. 1995. "Alonso Turrillo de Yebra.  Fundador y primer Tesorero de las Casas de Moneda de Cartagena y Santa Fe, en el Nuevo Reino de Granada. Primeras labores (1620-1634)." Acta Numismatica~25". Barcelona: Societat Catalana D'Estudis Numismàtics, Institut D'Estudis Catalans. [pp. 143-156].

Ponterio & Associates. Various dates. Auction Catalogs: San Diego, California.  Many auctions and heavy on Latin America, especially Mexico.  It will take a while to list them.

18 & 19 - August 1989:  Lots, (824, 828, 829, 833, 834, 835, 1642, ) plus lot 825 for which attribution is uncertain and a few lots that were not illustrated.  

Prescott, William H. 1874 (reprint). History of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic. Philadephia: J.B. Lippincott & Co. 3 volumes. (originally published in 1837).

Raymond, Wayte.  1964. T The Silver Dollars of North and South America. Racine, WI: Whitman Publishing Company [1st edition was published 1939 by Western Publishing Company.  Includes images of 4 eight reales from Nuevo Reino.]

Restrepo, Dr. Jorge Emilio. 1991. "Las Acuñaciones de Oro S.F." Boletin Numismatica 51 .Santa Fé de Bogotá: Numismaticos Colombianos. [ Artículo acerca una moneda de cuatro escudos 1751, con referencia a la obra por F. Xavier Calicó "Aportación a la historia monetaria de Santa Fé de Bogotá (Colombia)".

Restrepo, Dr. Jorge Emilio. 1992. "Las Primeras Monedas Colombianas" Boletin Numismatica 53.Santa Fé de Bogotá: Numismaticos Colombianos. [ Artículo acerca de las acuñaciones de 1622, descubiertas en el Atocha, y más el medio real con granada, buen fotos de 5 monedas.  Article on 1622 issues, from the Atocha, plus the half real with pomegranate design, good photos of 5 coins.]

Restrepo, Dr. Jorge Emilio & Lasser, Joseph R. 1998.  Macuquinas de Colombia (The Cobs of Colombia, South America). Medellín: Private printing. [This is the best book on the subject.  If you want to acquire this or any of Dr. Restrepo's books please send me an email.]

Restrepo, Dr. Jorge Emilio. 2001. "Novedades Numismáticas" Numis-Notoas No. 96. Medellín, Colombia: Circulo Numismático Antioqueño. p. 2 [ Artículo acerca macuquinas descubrimientas de 1671 PoRS 8R, 1680 PoGa 4R. fotos.  Article on discovered cobs of 1671 PoRS 8R and 1680 PoGa 4R.]

Restrepo, Dr. Jorge Emilio. 2001. "Nuestra Portada" Numis-Notoas No. 96. Medellín, Colombia: Circulo Numismático Antioqueño. p. 3 [ Artículo acerca descubrimienta de 1721 ensayador A un real, foto.  Article on a cob of 1721 assayer A one real, photo.]

Schuckmann, Siegfried von.  See Cayón.

Schulman Coin & Mint, Inc. 1972.  Spanish Galleon Treasure. New York: Private printing. [Novenber 27, 28, 29 - 1972 Auction of 1715 Plate fleet coins and artifacts.  Has Colombian gold cobs, but no silver cobs.  Catalog is important as the first public sale of 1715 material.]

Schulman Coin & Mint, Inc. 1974. Gold & Silver Coins of the Spanish World from the "Maravilla" sunk in 1656 & from the Spanish Plate Fleet perished in 1715...  New York: Private printing. [December 2, 3, 4 - 1974 Auction.   Has one lot of Colombian silver, Cartagena 8 Reales with inferred date of (1655) which is the cover coin on the catalog, also has Colombian gold cobs.  Also has a 62 pound silver bar from Potosí.]

Sedwick, Daniel and Frank 1995. The Practical Book of Cobs. Orlando: Private printng. [3rd edition.  130 pp. This is the first book on cobs that the collector should buy.  Great introduction to the subject and often used handbook.  Full of valuable information for the beginner and a great reference for the expert, really.  Includes a general pricing guide.]

Sedwick, 1985. "In Search of Colombian Cobs," The Numismatist. Colorado Springs, Colorado: American Numismatic Organization. [July edition, article on pp1312 to 1323.  Many photos.]

Spink America. 1997. Public Auction catalog "The Norweb Collection of Brazilian, Bolivian, Colombian and Chilean Coins New York, Monday, 3 March and Tuesday, 4 March 1997" New York. [14 lots of Colombian gold cobs, including a 1622 dated 2 escudos of Cartagena.]

Superior Galleries, New York. 1989. The Jascha Heifetz Collection Sale, Part 2. Beverly Hills, CA. Private printing. [Dec. 9,10, 1989 Auction catalog. Includes Paul Karon Collection of Latin America coins. Includes two lots of Nuevo Reino silver cobs, lots 725 & 726.  Lot 725 is a fabulous 1653 real plated in Restrepo/Lasser as M23-1.  The same coin is pedigreed from Ponterio June 8,-9, 1984 lot 386 and Christiansen Dec 8-9, 1979 lot 1078.]

Superior Galleries, New York. 1992.  Paul Karon Collection of 8 Escudos and other Classic Latin American Coinage. Beverly Hills, CA: Private printing. [Has one Colombian gold cob, 1744 - 8 escudos and one Colombian silver cob, 1622 - 2 reales.]

Superior Stamp & Coin, Beverly Hills, CA. 1997.  The New York International Numismatic Convention Auction" Beverly Hills, CA: Private printing. [Auction catalog for sale dates Dec 5,6, 1997 in New York. Has 27 lots of  Colombian gold cobs, and 11 lots of Colombian silver cobs of the pillars and waves design, an outstanding collection.]

Swiss Bank Corporation. 1988. Coins of Peru Zürich: Swiss Bank Corporation. [Ernesto Sellschopp Collection.  Cataloged by Freeman Craig Jr.  Auction catalog, 1356 lots,  Sale dates were 14/15 September 1988.  There are no Colombian coins, but catalog is a great reference for cobs.]

Swiss Bank Corporation. 1991. Collection of Spanish Colonial and Spanish Coins, Auction 27. Zürich: Swiss Bank Corporation. [Emilio Ortiz Collection.  Cataloged by Freeman Craig Jr.  Auction catalog.  Has 13 lots of Colombian cobs, 9 gold and 4 silver, all nice coins.]

Weyl, Adolph. 1878. "Die Jule Fonrobert'sche Sammlung überseeischer Münzen und Medaillen".  Amerika. II Abtheilung: Central-Amerika. a) Mexiko.  Berlin: J.A. Stargardt. reprinted 1974 Lawrence Massachusetts: Quarterman Publications, Inc. [Auction catalog with annotations for the Jules Fonrobert collection of non-european coins, this catalog in particular is for Mexico, Central America, South America and Caribbean.  Useful for the specialist in tokens and medals, included here as first publication of two Nuevo Reino silver cobs, 1688 two reales Pedro Garcia and 1690 eight reales Pedro Garcia, the 8 reales is illustrated with an engraving.  Lots 7368 & 7369 listed under Nicaragua.]

Yriarte, José de, y López-Chavez, Leopoldo. 1965 Catálogo de los Reales de a Ocho Españoles. Madrid: Editorial Iber-Amer, S.A.